Google+ Running in Cork, Ireland: September 2020

Tuesday, September 22, 2020

Boherbue to Kiskeam 4 mile race in Oct 2020 cancelled


The annual Boherbue to Kiskeam 4 mile road race was originally scheduled for April 2020 but was postponed until the 26th of October due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The organisers have now postponed the race until April 2021.

From Gneeveguilla AC... " Jack O’ Keeffe Boherbue to Kiskeam 4 Mile Road Race:  This race which was rescheduled for October 26th will not take place this  year.  The organisers are not happy with bringing crowds of people into both villages during this pandemic.  We are hoping to be able to go ahead Easter Monday 2021.  Better be safe than sorry.  Look out for news on the juvenile road races, we are hoping to go ahead with these on October Bank Holiday @ 12 noon."

Sunday, September 20, 2020

Results of the East Cork Novice Cross Country Championships - Sun 20th Sept 2020

 Results of East Cork XC Championships Day 2 2020 - Sunday September 20th 2020                
An Athletics Ireland registered event. Organised and hosted by Carraig na bhFear AC                    
Novice Men - 6,000m                    
Place    Name    Club    Category    Time    
1    Frank O'Brien    Midleton AC    M    21.37    
2    Tony Forristal    Midleton AC    M    21.44    
3    Aidan Noone    Watergrasshill AC    M    21.44    
4    Stephen O'Brien    East Cork AC    M    21.50    
5    John Hennessy    Midleton AC    M    21.53    
6    Sean Aherne    Youghal AC    M    22.15    
7    Trevor Cummins    Ballymore Cobh AC    M    22.32    
8    Graham Swords    East Cork AC    M    22.42    
9    Chris Kelly    East Cork AC    M    22.49    
10    Willie Walsh    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    22.53    
11    Paul Kearney    Aghada Running Club    M    22.58    
12    Paul Crotty    East Cork AC    M    23.01    
13    Keith Kelly    Youghal AC    M    23.04    
14    Daniel Bloom    Midleton AC    M    23.21    
15    Brendan Coleman    Youghal AC    M    23.22    
16    Warren Terri    Youghal AC    M    23.32    
17    Joseph Daly    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    23.35    
18    Edwin Cashman    Midleton AC    M    23.46    
19    Eoin Downing    Ballymore Cobh AC    M    23.49    
20    Shane Meyler    Ballymore Cobh AC    M    24.14    
21    Tony Dunne    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    24.29    
22    Mick Mulcahy    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    24.36    
23    Declan Dorgan    Midleton AC    M    25.08    
24    Jason Hayes    Ballymore Cobh AC    M    25.11    
25    Ger O'Regan    Midleton AC    M    25.22    
26    Jonathon Kenneally    St. Catherines AC    M    25.27    
27    Sean Kenneally    Youghal AC    M    25.27    
28    Don Sheehan    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    25.33    
29    Mark Lombard    Aghada Running Club    M    25.42    
30    Kevin Hayes    St. Catherines AC    M    25.57    
31    Andre Brodkorb    Midleton AC    M    26.30    
32    Jack Barrett    Ballymore Cobh AC    M    26.34    
33    John Mulcahy    St. Catherines AC    M    26.43    
34    Gus Keohane    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    26.45    
35    St. John O'Connor    St. Nicholas AC    M    26.48    
36    Paul Ryan    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    27.07    
37    Dave O'Riordan    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    27.24    
38    Chris McGrath    East Cork AC    M    27.44    
39    Brian Wall    Aghada Running Club    M    27.50    
40    Michael O'Brien    Aghada Running Club    M    27.51    
41    Darragh O'Keeffe    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    27.58    
42    David Mullins    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    28.10    
43    Sean Norris    Aghada Running Club    M    29.04    
44    John Maher    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    29.58    
45    Kieran Murphy    St. Catherines AC    M    30.26    
46    Michael Beirne    Midleton AC    M    30.42    
47    Paudie Scanlon    Aghada Running Club    M    31.52    
    Men Team     Pts            
1    Midleton AC    22            
2    East Cork AC    33            
3    Youghal AC    50            
4    Carrig na bhFear AC    70            
5    Ballymore Cobh AC    70            
6    Aghada Running Club    119            
7    St. Catherines AC    134            
Novice Women - 4,000m                
Place    Name    Club    Category    Time    
1    Katie Walsh    Carraig na bhFear AC    F    17.24    
2    Laura Rooney    Watergrasshill AC    F    17.42    
3    Eileen Leahy    Midleton AC    F    18.04    
4    Aisling Byrne    Carraig na bhFear AC    F    18.24    
5    Sally Drennan    Midleton AC    F    18.34    
6    Colette O'Donoghue    Watergrasshill AC    F    18.35    
7    Norah O'Brien    East Cork AC    F    18.36    
8    Lorna Santry    East Cork AC    F    18.40    
9    Annelise Hutch    East Cork AC    F    18.51    
10    Siobhan Walsh    Carraig na bhFear AC    F    19.01    
11    Avril Crowley    East Cork AC    F    19.18    
12    Helen Roche    Carraig na bhFear AC    F    19.30    
13    Ciara Magner    Watergrasshill AC    F    19.39    
14    Sara Barry    St. Catherines AC    F    19.44    
15    Cliona Hurley    Carraig na bhFear AC    F    19.52    
16    Louise Barry    Midleton AC    F    19.53    
17    Yvonne Sheehan    Watergrasshill AC    F    20.05    
18    Catherine Clancy    St. Catherines AC    F    20.12    
19    Tanya Leisk    Watergrasshill AC    F    20.21    
20    Mary De Barra    Ballymore Cobh AC    F    20.35    
21    Eibhlin Cleary    East Cork AC    F    20.51    
22    Leilia Pender    Ballymore Cobh AC    F    21.00    
23    Catherine Sheridan    Midleton AC    F    21.03    
24    Sarah Constant    Carraig na bhFear AC    F    21.30    
25    Lavinia Swords    East Cork AC    F    21.35    
26    Mags Twohig    Midleton AC    F    21.52    
27    Loveness Hegarty    Midleton AC    F    22.12    
28    Deirdre Meyler    Ballymore Cobh AC    F    22.16    
29    Eleanor Duggan    Aghada Running Club    F    23.10    
30    Janet O'Reilly    Aghada Running Club    F    23.23    
31    Ruth Phelan    Ballymore Cobh AC    F    24.50    
32    Carol Leahy    Ballymore Cobh AC    F    29.30    
    Womens Team     Pts            
1    Carraig na bhFear AC    27            
2    East Cork AC    35            
3    Watergrasshill AC    38            
4    Midleton AC    47            
5    Ballymore Cobh AC    101           

Saturday, September 19, 2020

Results of the Allihies 5 mile - Sat 19th Sept 2020

This small 5 mile race on the Beara Peninsula in West Cork attracted a smallish field of 126 participants. The start was in waves to cope with social distancing requirements.

1 Gary Scully    Nenagh    M40 28:20    
2 Shane Scully    Nenagh    M40 28:21    
3 Kristaps Liepins Watergrasshill A.C. M 29:00
5 Lizzie Lee    Leevale A.C. F40 30:09
18 Rosaleen Mackeown Leevale A.C.    F40 34:20
30 Nina Murphy F 37:01

Full results

Cork Mini-Marathon Weekend - Sat 19th & Sun 20th Sept 2020


Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there will be no Evening Echo Ladies Mini-Marathon this weekend. Every year, the participants taking part in this event raise several million Euro for charities.

Note that I emphasise the word 'participants' as this is a for-profit event and the proceeds from it which amounts to tens of thousands of Euros every year certainly don't go to charity. It's the participants that do all of the charity fundraising.

This year, lots of charities are going to see a big drop in donations and runners in Cork (both male and female) might consider doing their own virtual run over any distance and making a donation.

Someone sent me an email asking about the event and they were under the mistaken impression that purchasing a medal or a race number would somehow benefit a charity. That is not the case as the proceeds from the Evening Echo mini-marathon do not go to charity.


  • There is NO NEED to register, they just want to use your email and details.
  • There is NO NEED to buy some silly medal, save your money.
  • You SHOULD instead make a donation to your chosen charity.

 Just look up your chosen charity online and make a donation there.

Thursday, September 17, 2020

Film: A Long Run - The Movie

This film released in 2014 follows the journey of 64 year Bob Anderson as he tries to run 50 races in a year with a target of 350 miles and all under an overall average of 7:00 mins per mile pace.

The film also covers some of the history of the Runners World magazine which Bob Anderson started with $100 at the age of 17.

The film is pretty long at 109 minutes and might be one for the end of the day when there's nothing else on TV.

Tuesday, September 15, 2020

Results of the Charleville Half-Marathon - Sun 13th Sept 2020

While the main Charleville Half-Marathon was cancelled this year due to the COVID pandemic, the organisers did hold a smaller event for an elite field of 73 runners. A total of 62 men and 11 women took part.

Top 20 men...

 Half Marathon
1 Mick Clohisey    Raheny Shamrock    M    1:05:08    1:05:10    
2 Jake O Regan    St Johns    M    1:05:38    1:05:40     

3 Hugh Armstrong    Ballina A.C.    M    1:06:30    1:06:31

4 Micheal Power    West Waterford A.C.    M    1:07:28    1:07:31    

5 Sergiu Ciobanu    Clonliffe Harriers    M    1:07:33    1:07:35     

6    Ryan Creech    Leevale AC    M    1:07:54    1:07:55     
7    Pat Hennessy    West Waterford A.C.    M    1:08:08    1:08:10     
8    Alan O Shea    Bantry AC    M    1:08:44    1:08:46     
9    Rory O Connor    North Cork AC    M    1:09:40    1:09:42     
10    Ray Hynes    Donore Harriers    M    1:09:57    1:09:58     
11    David Scanlon    Rathfarnham WSAF AC    M    1:10:02    1:10:04     
12    Robert Murphy    Donore Harriers    M    1:10:19    1:10:21     
13    Sean Doyle    North Cork AC    M    1:10:22    1:10:24     
14    Colin Maher    Ballyfin AC    M    1:10:23    1:10:25     
15    John Kinsella    Bilboa AC    M40    1:10:48    1:10:50     
16    James Doran    An Riocht AC    M    1:10:48    1:10:51     
17    Mitchell Byrne    Rathfarnham WSAF AC    M    1:10:55    1:10:57     
18    Brian O Kelly    Crusaders AC    M    1:11:12    1:11:14     
19    Derek Griffin    Tralee    M    1:11:16    1:11:20     
20    Josh O S-Hourihan    Donore Harriers    M    1:11:33    1:11:35

11 women...

52 Breege Connolly    Derry Spartans    F40    1:17:28    1:17:31    
55 Ide Nic Dhomhnaill    Donore Harriers    F    1:18:36    1:18:40    
60 Mary Mulhare    Portlaoise AC    F    1:19:51    1:19:5563    Una Britton    Kilcoole AC    F    1:20:29    1:20:33    
65    Sorcha Loughnane    Donore Harriers    F40    1:20:48    1:20:53     
67    Sorcha Nic Dhomhnaill    Donore Harriers    F    1:21:31    1:21:35     
68    Norah Pieterse    Mayo ac    F40    1:22:19    1:22:24     
69    Linda Grogan    Dundrum AC    F    1:24:01    1:24:06     
70    Karen Mulrooney    Sligo AC    F    1:24:18    1:24:22     
71    Murna Griffin O Malley    Limerick Tri Club    F40    1:26:33    1:26:37     
73    Nollaigh O Neill    Leevale AC    F40    1:29:29    1:29:34

Full results

Sunday, September 13, 2020

Results of the East Cork Cross Country Championships - Sun 13th Sept 2020

 Results of East Cork XC Championships Day 1 2020 - Sunday September 13th 2020        
An Athletics Ireland registered event - Organised and hosted by St Catherines AC        

Senior Men - 6,000m                        
Place    Name    Club    Category    Time        
1    Kevin O'Brien    East Cork AC    M    20.55        
2    Paul Hartnett    Midleton AC    M    21.16        
3    Sean McGrath    East Cork AC    M35    21.28        M35 1st
4    Tony Forristal    Midleton AC    M    21.28        
5    James McCarthy    East Cork AC    M35    21.48        M35 2nd
6    Kenneth Kelleher    East Cork AC    M35    21.59        M35 3rd
7    Stephen O'Brien    East Cork AC    M35    22.01        
8    Sean Aherne    Youghal AC    M35    22.15        
9    Nick O'Donoghue    East Cork AC    M    22.28        
10    Brian Harty    East Cork AC    M35    22.36        
11    Trevor Cummins    Ballymore Cobh AC    M35    22.43        
12    Graham Swords    East Cork AC    M35    22.50        
13    Willie Walsh    Carraig na bhFear AC    M45    23.01        M45 1st
14    Paul Kearney    Aghada Running Club    M35    23.08        
15    Warren Terri    Youghal AC    M35    23.11        
16    Keith Kelly    Youghal AC    M35    23.11        
17    Brendan Coleman    Youghal AC    M35    23.16        
18    Daniel Bloom    Midleton AC    M    23.49        
19    Edwin Cashman    Midleton AC    M35    24.00        
20    Mike Byrne    St. Catherines AC    M35    24.19        
21    Patrick Kelly    Midleton AC    M    24.24        
22    John Beecher    St. Catherines AC    M35    24.30        
23    Tony Dunne    Carraig na bhFear AC    M45    24.33        M45 2nd
24    Tim Mahony    East Cork AC    M35    24.35        
25    Mick Mulcahy    Carraig na bhFear AC    M35    24.46        
26    Michael Cremin    East Cork AC    M35    24.51        
27    Ruairi Myers    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    25.00        
28    Ger O'Regan    Midleton AC    M45    25.07        M45 3rd
29    Declan Dorgan    Midleton AC    M35    25.16        
30    Don Sheehan    Carraig na bhFear AC    M45    25.24        
31    Sean Kenneally    Youghal AC    M35    25.25        
32    Johnny Garrett    Ballymore Cobh AC    M35    25.26        
33    Chris O'Connell    St. Catherines AC    M35    25.38        
34    Brendan Hickey    St. Catherines AC    M35    25.42        
35    Mark Lombard    Aghada Running Club    M35    25.44        
36    Kevin Hayes    St. Catherines AC    M45    26.20        
37    Andre Brodkorb    Midleton AC    M45    26.35        
38    David Barry    Youghal AC    M45    26.49        
39    John Mulcahy    St. Catherines AC    M    26.50        
40    Colin Brennan    Youghal AC    M45    27.00        
41    Jack Barrett    Ballymore Cobh AC    M    27.05        
42    Kieran Collins    Youghal AC    M45    27.18        
43    St. John O'Connor    St. Nicholas AC    M45    27.26        
44    Richard Hawkins    Carraig na bhFear AC    M45    27.29        
45    Neilus Aherne    Midleton AC    M45    27.31        
46    Chris McGrath    East Cork AC    M35    27.34        
47    Brian Wall    Aghada Running Club    M    27.40        
48    Mark O'Reilly    Midleton AC    M35    27.41        
49    Tom Moore    Ballymore Cobh AC    M45    27.43        
50    Darragh O'Keeffe    Carraig na bhFear AC    M    27.56        
51    Kieran Harte    St. Catherines AC    M45    28.04        
52    Ian Murphy    Youghal AC    M45    28.16        
53    Gus Keohane    Carraig na bhFear AC    M45    28.21        
54    Sean Norris    Aghada Running Club    M35    28.44        
55    Denis McCarthy    East Cork AC    M45    29.14        
56    Aidan Twomey    Aghada Running Club    M35    29.30        
57    Kieran Murphy    St. Catherines AC    M35    29.59        
58    Barrie Drennan    Midleton AC    M45    34.53        
    Team - Senior    Pts                
1    East Cork AC    15                
2    Midleton AC    43                
3    Youghal AC    56                
4    Carraig na bhFear AC    88                
5    St. Catherines AC    109                
6    Ballymore Cobh AC    133                
7    Aghada Running Club    150                
    Team - M35    Pts                
1    East Cork AC    21                
2    Youghal AC    56                
3    St. Catherines AC    109                
4    Aghada Running Club    159                
    Team - M45    Pts                
1    Carraig na bhFear AC    110                
2    Midleton AC    168                
3    Youghal AC    172                

    Women - 4,000m                    
Place    Name    Club    Category    Time        
1    Fiona Santry    East Cork AC    F    15.49        
2    Linda O'Sullivan    Watergrasshill AC    F45    16.21        F45 1st
3    Sinead O'Driscoll    Midleton AC    F35    16.27        F35 1st
4    Jennifer Goggin Walsh    Carraig na bhFear AC    F35    16.58        F35 2nd
5    Jen Preston    East Cork AC (Ind)    F    17.05        
6    Laura Rooney    Watergrasshill AC    F35    17.38        F35 3rd
7    Eileen Leahy    Midleton AC    F    17.48        
8    Rhona Lynch    Carraig na bhFear AC    F45    17.59        F45 2nd
9    Aisling Byrne    Carraig na bhFear AC    F    18.08        
10    Sonia O'Sullivan    Ballymore Cobh AC    F45    18.13        F45 3rd
11    Gwen Conroy    Watergrasshill AC    F35    18.19        
12    Deirdre Ansboro    Youghal AC    F35    18.27        
13    Louise Murphy    Youghal AC    F35    18.31        
14    Norah O'Brien    East Cork AC    F    18.49        
15    Annelise Hutch    East Cork AC    F    18.59        
16    Lorna Santry    East Cork AC    F    19.06        
17    Cliona Hurley    Carraig na bhFear AC    F45    19.22        
18    Siobhan Walsh    Carraig na bhFear AC    F35    19.23        
19    Pamela Barry    Aghada Running Club    F35    19.35        
20    Margaret O'Regan    Ballymore Cobh AC    F35    19.37        
21    Ciara Magner    Watergrasshill AC    F35    19.40        
22    Sinead Fitzgerald    Aghada Running Club    F35    19.45        
23    Joan Hough    Midleton AC    F45    19.50        
24    Catherine Clancy    St. Catherines AC    F45    20.07        
25    Louise Barry    Midleton AC    F35    20.09        
26    Breeda Sheedy    Midleton AC    F45    20.18        
27    Gillian Bansfield    Midleton AC    F35    20.25        
28    Christine Murphy    Midleton AC    F45    20.32        
29    Mary De Barra    Ballymore Cobh AC    F45    20.34        
30    Yvonne Sheehan    Watergrasshill AC    F35    20.45        
31    Lavinia Swords    East Cork AC    F    21.11        
32    Eibhlin Cleary    East Cork AC    F35    21.12        
33    Tara Friel    Ballymore Cobh AC    F45    21.14        
34    Catherine Sheridan    Midleton AC    F35    21.18        
35    Mags Twomey    Midleton AC    F45    21.43        
36    Siobhan Murphy    Midleton AC    F45    21.43        
37    Loveness Hegarty    Midleton AC    F    22.28        
38    Astrid Micheel    Midleton AC    F45    23.10        
39    Ruth Phelan    Ballymore Cobh AC    F45    23.54        
40    Agnes Hurley    St. Catherines AC    F45    24.08        
41    Celia O'Regan    Youghal AC    F45    24.43        
42    Amanda Devery    Midleton AC    F35    24.48        
43    Geraldine Curtin    Youghal AC    F45    25.47        
    Team - Senior    Pts                
1    Carraig na bhFear AC    38                
2    Watergrasshill AC    40                
3    East Cork AC    46                
4    Midleton AC    81                
5    Ballymore Cobh AC    92                
6    Youghal AC    109                
    Team - F35    Pts                
1    Watergrasshill AC    19                
2    Carraig na bhFear AC    30                
3    Midleton AC    55                
4    Youghal AC    66                
    Team - F45    Pts                
1    Ballymore Cobh AC    72                
2    Midleton AC    77               

Wednesday, September 09, 2020

Alex O'Shea & group do a Gap of Dunloe run to mark the 32 marathon challenge

Back in September of 2018, Fireman Alex O'Shea ran 32 marathon in each county of Ireland in 16 days. Last weekend, he met up with a group of friends to do a half-marathon run in the Gap of Dunloe in Kerry to mark the second anniversary of the occasion. He also made a special presentation to Ollie O'Sullivan for his help in organising the 32 county run.

Report from Alex O'Shea... 

Early start & down to Kerry for a social run A 1/2 marathon around the Gap of Dunloe with friends at 08.00

 1)Alex O Shea
2)Ollie O Sullivan
3)Chris Gayson
4)Brenden Blennerhassett
5)Darren O Sullivan
6)Brenden Caffrey
7)Ed Fitzgerald

A social few miles with the focus on chat & scenery not pace. For me it was my first time running with the company of others for such a long time. As things happened it was also a great opportunity to catch up with Ollie & present him with a momento from the 32 marathon challenge. This was not an easy task as we rarely seem to be free at the same time.

So a bit about the presentation. The plaque was commissioned & designed by me and thanks to Craig Dzrie for bringing it to life. It was in recognition of all the work Ollie put into the challenge always striving to help make the challenge a success on all levels be it fundraising for Irish Guide Dogs for the Blind or helping me achieve the 32 Marathons. Ollie was selfless in his endeavours. The plaque is made from timber from Glengarrif in West Cork which was saved from storm damaged trees.

The photo was taken by Mark Ramsey a fire fighter who joined us on the Co Down leg of the 32 Marathons taking photos as we ran in front of the iconic Northern Ireland Goverment building Stormont. (Thanks Mark). The photo was transferred to slate by friend & marathon runner (Paramedic Kieran Minihane thanks Kieran) 

The Slate represents Kerry as Valentia Island in Kerry has exported fine slate all over the world.. can't guarantee this bit of slate came from Valentia but it's the thought that matters.

The Cap badges are a thank you to all our uniformed colleagues that supported us throughout the challenge not just those in our own areas of fire service & GardaĆ­ we were supported by so many other organizations Army, Air Corps, Ambulance Service, Navy, Coast Guard, Prison Guards and the PSNI
The event medal shows each and every county of Ireland and encompasses all those that joined us & the Irish guide dogs on this challenge.

The reverse has a map of Ireland with each County and time ran etched into the wood.
Thank you Ollie

Monday, September 07, 2020

Results & Photos of the 2020 Kerry Way Ultra


The big running event this weekend in Munster was the annual Kerry Way Ultra. Contestants started the 200km course on Friday morning at 6am on the 4th of September and finished on the Saturday.

Most of the course is off road or on quiet country roads and it looks as if they got some nice weather for this years event for a change.

With most running events cancelled due to the COVID restrictions, this is one that could go ahead due to nature of the race. There are no issues with social distancing as most of the contestants end up being kms apart!

First woman home... Aoife Mundow completed the 200km course in 25h 26m. Photo: Valerie O'Sullivan

A total of 77 men and 4 women completed the 200km Ultra course.

Top 4...

Kerry Way Ultra Female
    118        Mundow, Aoife    25:26:49    Finish
    52        Enright, Sarah    29:35:49    Finish
    174        McNamee, Julie    33:08:03    Finish
    33        Costa, Jennifer    37:32:02    Finish

Kerry Way Ultra Male
    20        Byrne, Gavin    23:37:17    Finish
    94        Lane, Keith    24:01:18    Finish
    16        Buckley, Brian    24:32:13    Finish
    43        Delille, Remi    24:32:13    Finish

Full results

46 contestants had to retire which gives an indication of just how daunting a course this is.

1) Valerie O'Sullivan as always took to the hills to get some stunning shots.

Wednesday, September 02, 2020

Notice: Elaine Lehane Memorial Virtual Run - Sat 5th Sept 2020

The Elaine Lehane Memorial 5k normally takes place in Doneraile Park at the start of September every year. This year with the COVID-19 restrictions, it had to be cancelled.

They are asking runners and walkers to consider doing their own virtual run instead next Saturday and make a donation to Marymount Hospice.

From the organisers... Saturday next (5th of September) is the date that we were due to hold the 4th Elaine Lehane Memorial Run in aid of Marymount Hospice and in memory of a wonderful lady.

This year we will need to do something a little different to raise well needed funds for the team in Marymount.  We would love if familes/households could get out over the weekend and do their own 5k, run, walk or roll and perhaps post some of your pictures on this Facebook page for prosperity.

In addition there will be a small group of us cycling from Mallow to Marymount (about 45k) (and maybe back) on Sunday  - hopefully the weather will hold up.

It would be really appreciated if you make a donation directly to Marymount on the following link  . . .

 To date we have raised over €18,000 for Marymount and hoping to add another €2,000 to get us over the €20,000 mark. This would be an amazing achievement.